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    Detecting sub-micron time-dependent thermal defects and identifying those that represent potential device failures is a challenge in analysis for today’s complex electronic devices. The scaling of device features results in a significant reduction in time response and an increased sensitivity to transient events. With today’s complex devices very small localized temperature ‘hot spots’ can occur due to an unintended functional anomaly in a circuit with a tight design margin or a timing perturbation resulting from a small change in capacitance or another parameter elsewhere in the circuit. As device features continue to shrink so do the challenges of detecting circuit-induced thermal defects. This has led to the development of statistics-based, large-area sampling methods that can be time-consuming with results that often miss small scale circuit defects.