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    The growing complexity and continued emphasis on speed in today’s microelectronic devices has led to smaller and smaller geometries and, in turn, has placed increased demands on the need for adequate thermal and defect characterization techniques to ensure device reliability and performance. Several approaches are commercially available to designers and reliability engineers for electronic and optoelectronic characterization. These systems can be costly and may not always meet all of the requirements necessary to fully understand the properties of the devices being analyzed. In this application note we will provide a brief overview of four commercially available imaging techniques; Infrared (IR), Near infrared Emission Microscopy (EMMI), Optical Beam Induced Resistance Change (OBIRCH), and Thermoreflectance Thermal Imaging (TTI). IR, EMMI, and OBIRCH systems have been commercially available for some time, whereas TTI has only recently evolved from being a university research tool to a commercially available thermal imaging system.

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