Analyzing the thermal behavior in today’s logic ICs is greatly exacerbated with the scaling of the device features and increased use of complex 3-dimensional structures. At the same time the need to understand and address thermal anomalies is critical to ensure long-term device reliability. The scaling of device features results in a significant reduction in time response and an increased sensitivity to transient events. A very small localized ‘hot spot’ can occur due to an unintended functional anomaly in a circuit with a tight design margin or a timing perturbation resulting from a small change in a parameter elsewhere in the circuit. Thermoreflectance thermal imaging offers a cost- effective approach for detecting and analyzing hot spots on a sub-micron scale and, with the additional capability of transient analysis, offers the potential to identify time- dependent temperature events with nanosecond resolution.